Legal Subjects in the Slavonic Translation of the Procheiros nomos

Summary: 

The full Slavonic translation of the Byzantine legal compendium Procheiros nomos (870– 879, or 907) is a valuable witness of the high culture of translating juridical text developed by the Slavs during the Middle ages. Its earliest representative is the Ilovitsa copy from 1262, which is a part of the South Slavic Kormchaya with commentaries, also known as the Zakonopravilo of St. Sava of Serbia. The Ilovitsa kormchaya is a new type of law miscellany, a reliable witness for the increasing presence of translated texts of civil law. The Procheiros nomos is one of them. It has neither been fully published in Old Slavonic, nor translated into modern Bulgarian for the needs of Bulgarian juridical and philological studies. The present article focuses on the legal subjects (the persons defined as a necessary element of legal phenomena). In lexical terms they could be described as various subgroups of nomina agentis. The lexical and semantic fields of terminology allow for an approach that links the vocabulary of the text to socio-cultural factors and the public spheres of its application. This approach seems to be particularly appropriate in studying the medieval legal heritage. The linguistic material, excerpted selectively, is classified in the following groups: general denominations for social roles and differentiations (gender opposition, opposition master-servant, free man-slave, judges, witnesses, etc.); legal subjects exerting power; subjects of concrete social status (professional terms, criminal elements, heretics); kinship terminology. Of special interest are the terms of the RomanByzantine, in particular Justinian’s law, and their translation into Slavonic. The Slavonic translation of the Procheiros nomos exemplifies the ideological programme of the Ilovitsa kormchaya to give predominance to domestic lexical material, enriching it with terminological functions. In connection with this, some familiar lexemes are loaded with new context significance. Contextualisation most often reveals a well-considered choice. Thus a high register terminology with a specific field of application is created. Procheiros nomos comes next in importance after the first Slavonic translated texts of the 9th–10th centuries. In the area of legal matters and considering the abundance of terms, it remains unsurpassed in some areas. The Slavonic Procheiros relies on continuity and has a very unifying character, so it was transferred to different geographic areas. The stability of its lexical and terminological stock is undisputed evidence that it was known in various Slavonic states belonging to the Byzantine Commonwealth.

Mariyana Tsibranska-Kostova (Sofia, Bulgaria)

References: 

Alferova, G. V. Kormchaya kniga kak tsenneyshiy istochnik drevnerusskogo gradostroitel’nogo zakonodatel’stva. Eye vlianie na hudozhestvennyy oblik i planirovku russkih gorodov. – Vizantiyskiy vremennik, 35, 195–220.

Alferova, G. V. Vizantiyskie traditsii v russkom gradostroitel’stve. – Vizantiyskiy vremennik,  43, 1982, 183–190.

Angelov, D., P. Tivchev. Podbrani iz vori za istoriata na Vizantia. Sofia, 1970.

Benemanskiy, M. Ό prόcheiros nόmos imperatora Vasilia Makedonyanina. Sergiev Posad, 1906.

Benemanskiy, M. Zakon gradskiy. Znachenie ego v russkom prave. Moskva, 1917. 

Biblia, sirech Knigite na Sveshtenoto pisanie na Vethia i Novia Zavet. Izdava Sv. Sinod na Balgarskata tsarkva. Sofia, 1982.

Bobchev, S. Rimsko i vizantiysko pravo v starovremska Balgaria. Pravnoistoricheski etyud. Sofia, 1925.

Boychev, G. Yuridicheski latino-balgarski rechnik. Sofia, 2004.

Dodzhev, D. V. Rimskoe arkhaicheskoe nasledstvennoe pravo. Moskva, 1993.

Drevneslavyanskaya kormchaya XIV titulov bez tolkovaniy. Trud V. N. Beneshevicha. T. 2. Sofia, 1987.

Dyunan, J.-F., P. Pishona. Rimsko pravo. Rechnik na osnovnite termini. Sofia, 2007.

Еfimova, V. Naimenovania lits v staroslavyanskom yazyke. Sposoby nominatsii i prioritety vybora. Moskva, 2011.

Fasmer, M. Etimologicheskiy slovar’ russkogo yazyka. T. 1–4. Moskva, 1964–1973.

Holiolchev, Hr., М. Mladenov,  L. Radeva. Balgarska semeyno-rodova leksika. Entsi klopedichen rechnik. Sofia, 2012.

Ilieva, T. Substantivnoe upotreblenie imen prilagatel’nyh i drugih slov s adyektivnym znacheniem v srednevekovom bolgarskom yazyke. Substantivno upotreblyaemуe prilagatel’nye – nazvania lits]. – Linguistique Balkanique, 56, 2017, № 2–3, 211–230.

Kaniskov, V. Sakrovishtnitsa na balgarskata narodna meditsina. T. 3. Botanicheski rechnik – osnovi. Sofia, 2015].

Kitanova, M. “Chuzhdite detsa” v balgarskata kultura i ezik. – Balgarski ezik, 61, 2014, № 3, 19–32.

Kormchaya, napechatana s originala patriarha Yosifа] www. dorogiistorii.ru.

Korogodina, M. V.  Kormchie knigi XIV – pervoy poloviny XVII veka. T. 1. Issledovanie. Moskva–Sankt-Peterburg, 2017.

Maksimovich, K. A. Vizantiyskaya sintagma 14 titulov bez tolkovaniy v drevnebolgarskom perevode. Slavyanogre che skiy, grechesko-slavyanskiy i obratnyy (slavyanskiy) slovoukazateli. Т. 1–2. Frankfurt am Main, 2010.

Merilo pravednoe po rukopisi XIV veka. Izdano pod nablyudeniem i so vstupitel’noy stat’ey akademika M. N. Tihomirova. Moskva, 1961.

Mostrova, T. Slovoobrazuvatelni tendentsii v razvitieto na balgarskia knizhoven ezik prez Srednovekovieto (Kirilo-Metodievskite tra ditsii v pametnitsi ot XIV v.) (= Kirilo-Metodievski studii.

 Kn. 24). Sofia, 2015.

Naydenova, D. Pravnite pametnitsi v Parvoto balgarsko tsarstvo. – Istorichesko badeshte, 9, 2005, № 1–2, 159–161.

Naydenova, D. Zemedelskiat, Morskiat zakon i Prohironat v sastava na Efremovskata kormchaya. – Palaeobulgarica, 30, 2006, 1, 39– 46.

Naydenova, D. Pravni tekstove v srednovekovna Balgaria. – V: Balgarskiat Zlaten vek. Sbornik v chest na tsar Simeon Veliki (893–927). Plovdiv, 2015, 189–212.

Novakovich, St. Matije Vlastara Sintagmat. Azbuchni zbornik vizantijskih crkvenih i drzhavnih zakona i pravila. Zbornik za istoriju, jezik i knjizhevnost srpskog naroda. Prvo odeljenje, spomenici na srpskom jeziku). Knj. 4. U Beogradu, 1907.

Odzhakov, P. Starobalgarski zakoni. Veliko Tarnovo, 1892.

Pavlov, A. S. „Knigi zakonnye“, soderzhashchie v sebe v drevnerusskom perevode vizantiyskie zakony zemledelcheskie, ugolovnye, brachnye i sudebnye. Sankt-Peterburg, 1885.

Paev, K. Vizantiyski pravni pametnitsi ot Makedonskata dinastia (867–1056)]. – Studia Iuridico-Historica, 2, 2013, № 2, 66–91.

Paev, K., S. Georgieva. Vizantiyskiat morski zakon. – Studia Iuridico-Historica, 2, 2013, № 2, 44–65.

Petrovich, M. Zakonopravilo, ili, Nomokanon svetoga Save. Ilovichki prepis 1262. godina. Gornji Milanovats, 1991.

Reinhart, J. Vostochnoslavyanskoe vliyanie v drevneslavyanskoy Kormchey. Venskie doklady k IX mezhdunarodnomu syezdu slavistov v Kieve. Institut für Slawistik. Otdel’nyy ottisk. Wien, 1983.

Reinhart, J. Leksichki slojevi u Svetosavskoj Krmchiji. – Nauchni sastanak slavista u Vukove dane. Referati i saopshten’a. Beograd, 14.1.1985, 67–78.

Savchenko, D. A. Vizantiyskie normy o zashchite hristianskogo gosudarstva v drevnerusskoy pravovoy sisteme XI–XIII vekov. – Istoriko-pravovye problemy. Novyy rakurs, 2016, № 15, 182–203.

Slavova, T. Yuridicheska literatura. – V: Istoria na balgarskata srednovekovna literatura. Sofia, 2009, 194–203.

Sreznevskiy, I. I. Svedenia i zametki o maloizvestnyh i neizvestnyh pamyatnikah. Gl. 47. Kormchaya kniga serbskogo pis’ma 1262 g. – SORYAS, 12, 1875, 147–176.

Sreznevskiy, I. I. Materialy dlya slovarya drevnerusskogo yazyka. T. 1–3. Sankt-Peterburg, 1893–1903.

Slovar’ russkogo yazyka XI– XVII vv. T. 1 –26. Moskva, 1975–2002.

Subotin-Golubovich, T. Matija Vlastar Sintagma. Sa srpskoslovenskog jezika prevela T. SubotinGolubovich. Beograd, 2013.

Shchapov, Ya. N. Prohiron in the Eastern Slavonic literacy. – Vizantiyskiy vremennik, 38, 1977, 48–58.

Shchapov, Ya. N. Vizantiyskoe i yuzhnoslavyanskoe pravovoe nasledie na Rusi v XI–XIII vv. Moskva, 1978.

Shchapov, Ya. N. Vizantiyskaya „Ekloga zakonov“ v russkoy pis’mennoy traditsii. Sankt-Peterburg, 2011.

Tashev, R. Obshta teoria na pravoto. Sofia, 2010.

Tsibranska-Kostova, M. Gradskiat zakon i gradskoto blagoustroystvo v yuznoslavyanski kontekst. – Starobalgarska literatura, 57–58, 2018, 163–193.

Vizantiyskiy zemledel’cheskiy zakon. Tekst, issledovanie, kommentarii podgotovili Е. E. Lipshchits, I. P. Medvedev, Е. K. Piotrovskaya. Pod red. I. P. Medvedeva. Leningrad, 1984.

Zakon sudnyy lyudem prostrannoy i svodnoy redaktsii. Podgotovili k pechati M. N. Tihomirov i L. V. Milov. Moskva, 1961.

Zhi vov, V. Istoria russkogo prava kak lingvosemioticheskaya problema. – V: Razуskania v oblasti istorii i predistorii russkoy kul’tury. Moskva, 2002, 187–305.

Berruto, G. Identifying dimensions of linguistic variation in a language space. – In: Language and space. An International Handbook of Linguistic Variation. Vol. 1. Theories and Methods. Berlin–New York, 2010, 226–240 (www.books.google.bg, посетен на 21.09.2018).

Brandileone, F. Il diritto Bizantino nell’Italia meridionale dall’ VIII al XII secolo. Bologna, 1886; Repr. Con una nota di lettura di D. Simon (= Antiqva, 45). Napoli– Paris, 1987.

Bullinger, E. W. A Critical Lexicon and Concordance to the English and Greek New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI, 1999. Burgmann 1983 Ecloga. Das Gesetzbuch Leons III. und Konstantinos’ V. Hrsg. von L. Burgmann (= Forschungen zur byzantinischen Rechtsgeschichte. Bd. 10). Frankfurt am Main, 1983.

Chitwood, Z. Byzantine legal culture under the Macedonian dynasty 867–1056. A dissertation presented to the Faculty of Princeton University in candidacy for the degree of doctor of philosophy. Princeton, 2012 (http://arks.princeton.edu, посетен на 20.09.2018).

Freshfield, E. H. A Manual of Later Roman Law. The Ecloga ad Procheiron mutata. Cambridge, 1927.

Freshfield, E. H. A Manual of Eastern Roman law. The Procheiros nomos. Published by the Emperor Basil I at Constantinople between 867 and 879. Cambridge, 1928.

Freshfield, E. H. A Provincial Manual of Later Roman Law. The Calabrian Procheiron. Cambridge, 1931. Hakim 2014 H a k i m, B. S. Mediterranean Urbanism. Historic Urban Building Rules and Processes. New York–London, 2014.

Greek-English Lexicon. Compiled by H. G. Liddell and R. Scott. With revised supplement. Oxford, 1996.

Miklosich, F. Lexicon Palaeoslovenico–Graeco–Latinum. Emendatum auctum. Neudruck der Ausgabe. Wien, 1862–1865 (reprint 1977).

Morris, R. Dispute Settlement in the Byzantine Provinces in the Tenth Century. – In: The Settlement of Disputes in Early Medieval Europe. Eds. W. Davis, Р. Fouracre. Cambridge, 1986, 125–147.

Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium Ed. in Chief Al. Kazhdan. Vol. 1–3. New York–Oxford, 1991.

Pahlitzsch, J. The translation of the Byzantine Pricheiros Nomos into Arabic. Techniques and Cultural Context. – Byzantinoslavica, 65, 2007, 19–29.

Repertorium der Handschriften des byzantinischen Rechts. Teil II. Die Handschriften kirchlichen Rechts I. Von A. Schminck und D. Getov. Frankfurt am Main, 2010.

Schminck, A. Das Prooimion des Procheiron. – In: Studien zu mittelbyzantinischen Rechtsbüchern (= Forschungen zur byzantinischen Rechtsgeschichte. Bd. 13). Frankfurt am Main, 1986, 55–107.

Schminck, A. A. Die Titelrubriken der Ecloga, der Eisagoge und des Prochiron. – Annali del Seminario Giuridico dell’ Universit‡ degli studi di Palermo, 58, 2015, 275–290.

The Rhodian See Law. Edited and translated by W. Ashburner. Oxford, 1909 (reprint Aalen, 1976).

Zepos, I., P. Zepos. Prochiron. – In: Jus Graecoromanum. Vol. 2. Leges imperatorum Isaurorum et Macedonum. The Rhodian See Law. Athen, 1931 (reprint Aalen, 1962).

Van Bochove, T. E. To Date and Not To Date. On the Date and Status of Byzantine Law Books. Gröningen, 1996.

Von Lingenthal, K. E. Z. Ho procheiros nomos. Imperatorum Basilii, Constantini et Leonis Prochiron. Apud J. C. B. Mohr. Heidelbergae, 1837.