The Slavonic Zakon Gradskiy in Modern Bulgarian Translation: Problems and Approaches

Summary: 

The article discusses some philological challenges in the translation of the Procheiros nomos (872–879) into modern Bulgarian, its place and role in the topical research field of translating Byzantine and Slavonic medieval texts. The Byzantine legal code has never been entirely translated in Bulgaria for juridical or philological purposes. The research regarding its Slavonic reception could be conducted on the base of the earliest South Slavonic copy preserved in the 55th chapter of the Ilovitsa kormchaya from 1262. The observations presented are based on the personal analysis of the original text of the full Prochiron of 40 titles from the Ilovitsa copy. The article demonstrates the terminological richness of the source, not only as regards the predominant subjects of civil, family and criminal law but also some “hidden thematic fields”. It illustrates the principles of the translation by giving examples from two different groups: the first one exemplifies a hidden area and is represented by several regulations from the sea trade in the Procheiros nomos (title 17, 19) – hiring a ship to carry goods, responsibility of the captain, the pilot and the freighter; the second concerns the terminology of the Roman-Byzantine law and reveals how the Slavonic translators rendered the term ἐμφυτεύσις, being the object of the 15th title. Both are presented in Slavonic original and in Modern Bulgarian. The article considers translating as a part of the modern scholarly paradigm in the digital era, defending the necessity of making a translation with the purpose of revealing the Slavonic reception of the Byzantine legal code. It states that the translation will be satisfying since the text is put in a complex network of dependence on the Greek original, the Old Slavonic interpretation, the existing English translation by E. H. Freshfield from 1928, and other translated fragments in different languages. In addition encyclopedic and linguistic dictionaries of classical and modern languages are consulted. The main goal is to introduce this unique monument of Byzantine imperial jurisprudence to a large and interdisciplinary scholarly public for further analysis.

Mariyana Tsibranska-Kostova (Sofia, Bulgaria)
References: 

Alferova, G. V. Kormchaya kniga kak tsenneyshiy istochnik drevnerusskogo gradostroitel’nogo zakonodatel’stva. Ee vliyanie na khudozhestvennyy oblik i planirovku russkikh gorodov. – Vizantiyskiy vremennik, 35, 1973, 195–220.

Andreev, M. Rimskoto pravo i Slavyanskata Ekloga (za nyakoi otklonenia na slavyanskata Ekloga ot rimskoto pravo). – Godishnik na SU. Yuridicheski fakultet, 50, 1959, 3–18. 

Belyakova, Е. V., Ya. N. Shchapov. Novelly imperatora Yustiniana v russkoy pis'mennoy traditsii. K istorii retseptsii rimskogo prava v Rossii. Moskva, 2005.

Belyakova, E. V., Ya. N. Shchapov. Zakonodatel’stvo imperatora Yustiniana v russkoy i slavyanskoy traditsii. Osobennosti russkoy retseptsii rimskogo prava. – V: Etnokul’turnoe vzaimodeystvie v Evrazii: Programma fundamental’nykh issledovaniy Prezidiuma RAN. Kn. 1. Pod red. A. Derevyanko i dr. Moskva, 2006, 386–404.

Benemanskiy, M. Zakon gradskiy. Znachenie ego v russkom prave. Moskva, 1917.

Beneshevich, V. N. Kanonicheskiy sbornik XIV titulov so vtoroy chetverti VII v. do 883 g. K drevneyshey istorii istochnikov prava Greko-vostochnoy Tserkvi. Sankt-Peterburg, 1905.

Beneshevich, V. N. Drevneslavyanskaya kormchaya XIV titulov bez tolkovaniy. T. 2. Pod obshchim rukovodstvom Ya. N. Shchapova. Sofia, 1987.

Bilyarsky, Iv. Publichno- i kanonichnopravna leksika v balgarskoto srednovekovno prostranstvo. Varna, 2011.

Blagoev, N. P. Ekloga. Sofia, 1932.

Boychev, G. Yuridicheski latinsko-balgarski rechnik. Sofia, 2004.

Vizantiyskiy zemledel’cheskiy zakon. Tekst, issledovanie, kommentarii podgotovili E. E. Lipshits, I. P. Medvedev, E. K. Piotrovskaya. Pod red. I. P. Medvedeva. Leningrad, 1984.

Ganev, V. Zakon za sadene na horata. Pravno-istoricheski i pravno-analiticheski prouchvania. Sofia, 1959.

Gelev, D. Prirachnikot na vizantiskoto pravo – Procheiros nomos. – <www. academia.edu> (poseten na 12.03.2019)] (под печат). 

Danova, N. Fragmenti ot istoriyata na izgrazhdaneto na pravnata kultura pri balgarite. – Kritika i Humanizam, 37, 2012, № 1, 201–265.

Dimitrov, D. Moreto v politikata na srednovekovnite balkanski darzhavi. – V: Srednovekovnite Balkani kato svetoven krastopat: kontakti i obmen. Sast. i red. L. Simeonova, L. Tasseva. Sofia, 2017, 165–184. 

Dyunan, J.-F., P. Pishona. Rimsko pravo. Rechnik na osnovnite termini. Sofia, 2007.

Ilievska, Kr. Zakonъ sudnyi lyud’mъ. Skopje, 2004.

Korogodina, M. V.  Kormchie knigi XIV – pervoy poloviny XVII veka. T. 1. Issledovanie. Moskva–Sankt Peterburg, 2017.

Lipshits, E. Ekloga. Vizantiyskiy zakonodatel’nyy svod VIII veka. Moskva, 1965.

Maksimovich, K. A. Zakonъ soydnyi lyud’mъ. Istochnikovedcheskie i lingvisticheskie aspekty issledovania slavyanskogo yuridicheskogo pamyatnika. Moskva, 2004.

Naydenova, D. Pravni tekstove v srednovekovna Balgariya. – V: Balgarskiyat Zlaten vek. Sbornik v chest na tsar Simeon Veliki (893–927). Plovdiv, 2015, 189–212.

Odzhakov, P. Starobalgarski zakoni. Veliko Tarnovo, 1892.

Pavlov, A. S. „Knigi zakonnye“, soderzhashchie v sebe v drevnerusskom perevode vizantiyskie zakony zemledel’cheskie, ugolovnye, brachnye i sudebnye. Sankt-Peterburg, 1885.

Paev, K. Vizantiyski pravni pametnitsi ot Makedonskata dinastia (867–1056). – Studia Iuridico-Historica, 2, 2013, № 2, 66–91.

Paev, K., S. Georgieva. Vizantiyskiyat morski zakon. – Studia Iuridico-Historica, 2, 2013, № 2, 44–65.

Petrović, M. Zakonopravilo, ili Nomokanon svetoga Save. Ilovički prepis 1262. godina. Gornji Milanovac, 1991.

Kormchaya, napechatana s originala patriarkha Yosifa  www.dorogiistorii.ru.

Slavova, T. Yuridicheska literatura. – V: Istoriya na balgarskata srednovekovna literatura. Sofia, 2009, 194–203.

Sreznevskiy, I. I. Svedeniya i zametki o maloizvestnykh i neizvestnykh pamyatnikakh. XLVII. Kormchaya kniga serbskogo pis’ma 1262 g. – SORYAS, 12, 1875, 147–176.

Starobalgarski rechnik. Т. 1. А–Н.  Sofia, 1999; T. 2. О–x. Sofia, 2009.

Tsibranska-Kostova, M. Kam slavyanskata pravna terminologiya v XXXIX titul na Prochirona. – Laudator temporis acti. Sbornik v pamet na prof. Ivan Bozhilov. T. 2. Sofia, 2018, 85–107.

Shchapov, Ya. N. Prokhiron v vostochnoslavyanskoy pis’mennosti. – Vizantiyskiy vremennik, 38, 1977, 48–58.

Shchapov, Ya. N. Vizantiyskoye i yuzhnoslavyanskoe pravovoe nasledie na Rusi v XI–XIII vv. Moskva, 1978.

Shchapov, Ya. N. Vizantiyskaya „Ekloga zakonov“ v russkoy pis’mennoy traditsii. Sankt-Peterburg, 2011.

B r a n d i l e o n e, F. Il diritto Bizantino nell’Italia meridionale dall’ VIII al XII secolo. Bologna, 1886. Reprint. Con una nota di lettura di D. Simon (= Antiqua 45). Napoli–Paris, 1987.

B u r g m a n n, L. Ecloga. Das Gesetzbuch Leons III. und Konstantinos’ V. Hrsg. von L. Burgmann (= Forschungen zur byzantinischen Rechtsgeschichte. Bd. 10). Frankfurt am Main, 1983.

C h i t w o o d, Z. Byzantine legal culture under the Macedonian dynasty 867–1056. A dissertation presented to the Faculty of Princeton University in candidacy for the degree of doctor of philosophy. Princeton, 2012 (http://arks.princeton.edu, посетен на [poseten na] 20.09.2018).

F r e s h f i e l d, E. H. A Manual of Roman Law: the Ecloga Published by the Emperors Leo III and Constantine V of Isauria at Constantinople A.D. 726. Cambridge, 1926.

F r e s h f i e l d, E. H. A Manual of Later Roman Law. The Ecloga ad Procheiron mutata. Cambridge, 1927.

F r e s h f i e l d, E. H. A Manual of Eastern Roman Law. The Procheiros nomos. Published by the Emperor Basil I at Constantinople between 867 and 879. Cambridge, 1928.

F r e s h f i e l d, E. H. A Provincial Manual of Later Roman Law. The Calabrian Procheiron. Cambridge, 1931.

H a k i m, B. S. Mediterranean Urbanism. Historic Urban Building Rules and Processes. New York–London, 2014.

A Greek-English Lexicon. Compiled by H. G. Liddell and R. Scott. Oxford, with revised supplement. Clarendon Press, 1996.

M i n c z e w, G., M. S k o w r o n e k, J. W o l s k i. Średniowieczne herezje dualistyczne na Balkanach. Źród³a s³owiañskie. £ódŸ, 2015.

Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium Ed. in Chief Al. Kazhdan. Vol. 1–3. New York–Oxford, 1991.

S c h m i n c k, A. Das Prooimion des Procheiron. – In: Studien zu mittelbyzantinischen Rechtsbüchern (Forschungen zur byzantinischen Rechtsgeschichte. Bd. 13). Frankfurt am Main, 1986, 55–107.

S c h m i n c k, A. Die Titelrubriken der Ecloga, der Eusagoge und des Prochiron. – Annali del Seminario Giuridico dell’Universit‡ degli studi di Palermo, 58, 2015, 275–290.

Z e p o s, I., P. Z e p o s. Prochiron. – In: Jus Graecoromanum. Vol. 2. Leges imperatorum Isaurorum et Macedonum. Ed. altera. Scientia Aalen, 1962 (reprint Athen, 1931), 114–228.

Z e p o s, P. The Legacy of Civil Law. – Louisiana Law Review, 34, 1974, № 5, 894–906.

V a n B o c h o v e, T. E. To Date and Not To Date. On the Date and Status of Byzantine Law Books. Groningen, 1996, 33–34.

V a š i c a, J. Collectio 87 (93) capitulorum dans les nomocanons slaves. – Byzantinoslavica, 20, 1959, № 1, 1–8.

V o n  L i n g e n t h a l, K. E. Z. Ho Procheiros nomos. Imperatorum Basilii, Constantini et Leonis Prochiron. Heidelbergae, 1837.