Староболгарский перевод „Апологии“ (Слово 2) Григория Назианзина: Критика текста


The present paper offers a text-critical study of the Old Church Slavonic version of Gregory of Nazianzus’ Apologeticus (Oratio 2: Ἀπολογητικὸς τῆς εἰς τὸν Πόντον φυγῆς ἕνεκεν; CPG 3010.2). This work, originally composed in Greek ca. 362 A.D., was translated in Bulgaria between the late 9th and the early 10th century. The text has come down to us in four Old East Slavic Cyrillic manuscripts dating from the 11th to 16th centuries. The oldest testimony is a codex unicus, which preserves a collection of thirteen homilies (P = St Petersburg, National Library of Russia, Q.п.I.16, second half – late 11th century). The other witnesses belong to three different types of the Slavonic liturgical collection of the sixteen homilies (K = St Petersburg, National Library of Russia, K/B № 82/207, second half of the 15th century; L = Moscow, Russian State Library, F. 304/I № 8, 14th century; X = Russian State Library, F. 242 № 118, late 15th – early 16th centuries). The author undertakes a first attempt of collating the entire legacy of manuscript evidence. The approach is based on the stemmatic method, namely on the method of the significant errors (Leitfehler). The conclusion put forward is that the Slavonic tradition derives from a single archetype (α) and that it splits into two major branches of transmission. The first corresponds to manuscript P, while the second to hyparchetype β, an understanding of which may be reconstructed on the basis of the textual agreement of KLX. As a result, the examination of the tradition led to a bifid stemma. The author shows that a number of archetype readings are to be detected in β and that a critical edition should therefore be based not only on P, but on the whole manuscript evidence. Therefore, almost 150 years after the diplomatic edition of codex P by A. Budilovič, restricting attention to the earlier manuscripts can be safely assumed to exclude any possibility of reaching well-founded conclusions on textual criticism. Rather, while studying Old Church Slavonic texts, composed in the 9th – 11th centuries, scholars would be well-advised to pay equal attention to later copies dating from the 14th – 15th centuries or even after.

Алессандро Мария Бруни (Венеция, Италия)


Б р у н и, A. M. θεολόγος. Древнеславянские кодексы Слов Григория Назианзина и их византийские прототипы (= Россия и Христианский Восток. Библиотека, 6). Москва–Санкт-Петербург, 2004.

Б р у н и, A. M. Византийская традиция и старославянский перевод Слов Григория Назианзина. Т. 1 (= Россия и Христианский Восток. Библиотека, 9). Москва, 2010.

Б р у н и, A. M. Древнейшая славянская традиция Слова XVI Григория Богослова: Старославянские версии и проблемы их изучения. – Palaeobulgarica, 44 (2020), № 1, с. 28–52.

Б р у н и, A. M. Староболгарский перевод Слова 44 Григория Назианзина: Критическое издание по рукописям XIII–XVII вв. – In: Translations of Patristic Literature in South-Eastern Europe. Proceedings of the session held at the 12th International Congress of South-East European Studies (Bucharest, 2–6 September 2019). Edited by L. Taseva, R. Marti (= Bibliothèque de l’Institut d’Études sud-est européennes, 14). Brăila, 2020, p. 21–42.

Б р у н и, A. M. Византийская традиция и старославянский перевод Слов Григория Назианзина. Т. 2. Коллекция 16 Слов: Описание славянских кодексов. Москва, 2021.

Б у д и л о в и ч, А. С. XIII слов Григория Богослова в древнеславянском переводе по рукописи Императорской публичной библиотеки XI века. Санкт-Петербург, 1875.

К а л у г и н, В. В. Из истории глаголицы в Древней Руси (Толковые пророчества 1047 года). – Труды Отдела древнерусской литературы, 64 (2016), с. 769–805.

Т у р и л о в, А. А. Болгарские литературные памятники эпохи Первого царства в книжности Московской Руси XV–XVI вв. (Заметки к оценке явления). – Славяноведение, 1995, № 3, с. 31–45.

Т у р и л о в, А. А. Глаголица. – В: Православная энциклопедия. Т. 11. Георгий – Гомар. Москва, 2006, с. 538–543.


Bibliotheca Hagiographica Graeca. 3 ed. 3 vols. Ed. F. Halkin. Bruxelles, 1957; Novum Auctarium Bibliothecae hagiographicae graecae. Ed. F. Halkin. Bruxelles, 1984.

B r u n i, A. M. La tradizione slava antica della „Vita di S. Gregorio il Teologo“ (BHG 723): Fonti manoscritte e versioni del testo. – In: Ricerche Slavistiche. N. S. 9, 55 (2011), p. 35–54.

Clavis patrum graecorum. Ed. M. Geerard, M. Vol. 2. Turnhout, 1974.

D u b u i s s o n, M.,  C. M a c é. L’apport des traductions anciennes à l’histoire du texte de Grégoire de Nazianze. Application au Discours 2. – Orientalia Christiana Periodica, 69 (2003), p. 287–340.

Grégoire de Nazianze Discours 1–3. Introduction, texte critique, traduction et notes par J. Bernardi (= Sources chrétiennes, 247). Paris, 1978.

L a f o n t a i n e, G.,  H. M é t r é v e l i. Les versions copte, arménienne et géorgiennes de Saint Grégoire le Théologien. État des recherches. – In: II. Symposium Nazianzenum. Louvain-la-Neuve, 25–28 août 1981. Actes du colloque international. Ed. J. Mossay (= Studien zur Geschichte und Kultur des Altertums. NF 2. Reihe, Bd. 2). Paderborn, 1983, p. 63–73.

M o s s a y, I. et al. Repertorium Nazianzenum. Orationes. Textus Graecus. Vol. 1–6. Paderborn, 1981–1998.

Patrologiae cursus completus. Series Graeca. Ed. J.-P. Migne. Vol. 35. Paris, 1857.

Sancti Gregorii Nazianzeni opera. Versio armeniaca. Vol. 1. Orationes II, XII, IX. Ed. B. Coulie (= Corpus Christianorum. Series Graeca, 28. Corpus Nazianzenum, 3). Turnhout, 1994.

Sancti Gregorii Nazianzeni opera. Versio syriaca. Vol. 5. Orationes I, II, III. Ed. J-C. Haelewyck (= Corpus Christianorum. Series Graeca, 77. Corpus Nazianzenum, 25). Turnhout, 2011.

Tyrannii Rufini Orationum Gregorii Nazianzeni novem interpretatio. Ed. A. Engelbrecht. Wien–Leipzig, 1910.

Z i f f e r, G. Una premessa cronologica allo studio della tradizione manoscritta slava orientale antica. – Russica Romana, 4 (1997), p. 11–25.